The wizards over at Wotton Pool have created a system that allows them to control the solar-heated system for the pool with a Raspberry Pi. The Pi tracks temperatures throughout the system to decide when to pump water heated by the sun. They've gotten pretty sophisticated about it and even set up a dashboard to give some data on what the Pi has accomplished. The system also is set up so that it can be controlled over the Internet and adjusted from anywhere.
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The Science Bit (more details)